Skip to main content


xoid offers basic support for streams. Streams are generally treated as a whole different concept than atoms. They're actually very close, and there's no need for a completely different library for them. xoid thinks that streams can easily be a a "bonus feature" of an atomic state management library.

Our definition of a stream is the following:

A stream is an atom that may not have an immediate value.

xoid have a separate Stream type along with the Atom. Streams differ from atoms not only by types, but also in terms of the runtime behaviour.

There are two ways to produce a stream in xoid:

  • Using the .map method with true as the second argument
  • Using create with no arguments

Using the .map method with true as the second argument

Imagine we're setting up a basic counter, and we're deriving another counter that takes only the odd values from the first. We can set this up in the following way:

const $counter = create(0)
const $odd = $ => s % 2 ? s : undefined, true)
// Type of `$odd` would be `Stream<number>`

true in the second argument means "filter out falsy values" here. If we didn't use this overload of .map, we would end up with a Atom<number | undefined>. However, we would lose the following benefits:

const $doubleOdd = $ => value * 2)

Here, the type of value is always a number. If we were working with a Atom<number | undefined> instead of a Stream<number>, value would also be number | undefined and our code would be slightly more verbose to cover those cases.

Using create with no arguments

When no arguments are used, create function produces a Stream instead of an Atom. Let's assume we're creating a $clickStream and a $clickAtom like the following:

import create from 'xoid'

const $clickStream = create<MouseEvent>() // Stream<MouseEvent>
const $clickAtom = create<MouseEvent | undefined>(undefined) // Atom<MouseEvent | undefined>

// Imagine we're going to satisfy the internal value of these atoms later as:
window.addEventListener('click', $clickStream.set)
window.addEventListener('click', $clickAtom.set)

Note that in JavaScript, calling a function with no arguments can be different than calling it with undefined, if the internal implementation of the function makes use of the arguments.length builtin. xoid makes use of exactly that.

Let's look at the similarities and differences between $clickStream and $clickAtom. First of all, their .value getter types are the same.

$clickStream.value // MouseEvent | undefined
$clickAtom.value // MouseEvent | undefined

However, there's a difference in .set method's types. This applies for .update as well.

$clickStream.set // (value: MouseEvent) => void
$clickAtom.set // (value: MouseEvent | undefined) => void

A stream's key feature is the behavior of its .map and .focus methods. First, let's look at the .map method's types.

$ => { /* `value` has the `MouseEvent` type */ })
$ => { /* `value` has the `MouseEvent | undefined` type */ })

As you can see, even though $clickStream starts off undefined as its internal value, we do not run into any undefined type inside the .map method callback. This can be beneficial, because now you can chain multiple .map methods without caring about the undefined states.

const double = (value: number) => value * 2

const $doubleX = clickStream
.map((event) => event.clientX)

Lastly, here's the difference of the two, from the index.d.ts file of xoid.

export type Atom<T> = {
value: T
set(state: T): void
update(fn: (state: T) => T): void
subscribe(fn: (state: T, prevState: T) => unknown): () => void
watch(fn: (state: T, prevState: T) => unknown): () => void
focus<U>(fn: (state: T) => U): Atom<U>
focus<U extends keyof T>(key: U): Atom<T[U]>
map<U>(fn: (state: T, prevState: T) => U): Atom<U>
map<U>(fn: (state: T, prevState: T) => U, filterOutFalsyValues: true): Stream<Truthy<U>>

export type Stream<T> = {
value: T | undefined
set(state: T): void
update(fn: (state: T | undefined) => T): void
subscribe(fn: (state: T, prevState: T | undefined) => unknown): () => void
watch(fn: (state: T | undefined, prevState: T | undefined) => unknown): () => void
focus<U>(fn: (state: T) => U): Stream<U>
focus<U extends keyof T>(key: U): Stream<T[U]>
map<U>(fn: (state: T, prevState: T | undefined) => U): Stream<U>
fn: (state: T, prevState: T | undefined) => U,
filterOutFalsyValues: true
): Stream<Truthy<U>>

Observe that the few major differences are the .value getter and bunch of prevStates.